Cuando Los Hombres Oran (Spanish Edition)

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Cervantes: Bulletin of the Cervantes Society of America

Los creyentes son llamados a siempre vivir como fieles en el mundo, rechazando las presiones que los amenacen a transigir su integridad cristiana. La iglesia es la confraternidad de un pueblo redimido viviendo en amor. Como hacedores de paz ayudamos en el sufrimiento, disminuyendo conflicto, promoviendo la justicia y obrar para terminar la violencia y guerra para que otros vean un ejemplo del amor de Cristo.

Como en algunas iglesias de paz muchos de nosotros elegimos de no participar en el militar sino que buscamos otras formas de servicio. Creemos que toda vida humana pertenece a dios. Cada persona ha sido creada en la imagen de dios y debe ser celebrada y desarrollada. Los no nacidos, los discapacitados, los pobres, personas de mayor edad y gente terminal son especialmente vulnerables a tales injusticias.

Selected Poems of Luis de Gongora: A Bilingual Edition (Spanish Edition)

Cristo llama al pueblo de todas las naciones para cuidar a los indefensos. Dios valora la vida humana altamente. Las decisiones finales con respecto a la vida y la muerte pertenecen a dios. Dios ha confiado el cuidado de la tierra a toda la humanidad, quienes son responsables por el manejo de sus recursos. Los cristianos no reclaman sus posesiones como propias, pero administran todos sus recursos, incluyendo el tiempo, el dinero, las habilidades e influencias en maneras generosas que glorifique a Dios.

No desprecian a los pobres sino practican la ayuda mutua dentro de la iglesia y comparten lo que tienen con otros en necesidad. EL pueblo de Dios busca adoptar un estilo de vida de sencillez y contentamiento. Deben usar sus habilidades y recursos para glorificar a Dios y servir a otros. El descanso es un acto de gratitud por lo que Dios ha provisto. Es un acto de confianza, recordando que no es su trabajo quien los sustenta sino Dios. Dios no ha dejado a nadie sin alguien que le testifique de las bondades y el poder del Creador.

Confession of Faith – Spanish – USMB

Dios ama al mundo y no quiere que nadie perezca. En ocasiones los cristianos han sufrido y sido perseguidos por ser testigos de Cristo. Dios Hijo El Hijo por quien todas las cosas fueron creadas y quien sostiene todo, es la imagen del Dios invisible. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author. Skip to Main Content. Search in: This Journal Anywhere.

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Advanced search. Guest Editors: Robert S. Fletcher, Benjamin Mountford and Simon J.

Journal homepage. Pages In the war to conquer the Muslim kingdom of Granada, King Ferdinand promised that any town that capitulated to the Spanish armies would be spared; its citizens could retain their homes, their language, and their religion. They must surrender their arms, and their leaders would have to leave, but everyone else could stay.

Those who wanted to convert to Christianity were encouraged to do so, but there would be no Inquisition to police the completeness of their assimilation. Cities that refused to surrender would be devastated. Not surprisingly, after a few examples like Malaga, whose citizens were enslaved after a three-month siege, most towns gave in after only token resistance.

The Iberian Christian kingdoms had been absorbing Muslims for centuries as they pushed the borders south. Some Muslims lived in enclaves and spoke the language and practiced the customs of their North African ancestors; others were indistinguishable from their Christian neighbors except for their religion. Some of those who along the way had become Christians and had married Old Christians still retained some of the customs of their Muslim neighbors.

What they all had in common was that they were Spaniards. While King Fernando lived, his promises were honored, but after his death in the regent, Cardinal Cisneros, ordered mass conversions, the burning of Arabic manuscripts, and a variety of other measures detrimental to the remaining Muslims.

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This sparked a revolt , centered in Granada, that ended in many Muslims being forced to choose between baptism, exile, or execution. Tensions from then onward remained high, and Castile was obliged to maintain a large military force in Granada to deter future revolts. Since now all remaining Muslims were officially Christian, the remaining mosques were destroyed or turned into churches.

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The Morisco communities managed to get implementation delayed for forty years by the payment of a large sum of money to the Crown. But when the Inquisition began actively pursuing Moriscos who were continuing to observe Muslim customs, fear and resentment multiplied, not only in Granada but in Morisco neighborhoods throughout the Peninsula.

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  7. The Spaniards sent an army, captained by Juan de Austria. The Moriscos responded with mobile forces, small groups, attacking, running, hiding, and striking again as best they could. The Spanish term for this so called little war — guerilla - has lodged in our language.

    Several thousand foreign troops, from Turkey and from North Africa, infiltrated into southern Spain to help the Morisco rebellion.

    ISBN 13: 9789500702546

    Juan de Austria crushed them in three years. His ministers, notably the Duke of Lerma the Alpujarras war still fresh in his mind, lobbied that Spain should rid itself of its Morisco population once and for all. They made three points: 1 Moriscos were unassimilable, they would always cling to their language and culture. They were collaborating with the Turks, and with the Barbary pirates. Rumors circulated fake news? And 3 the Morisco presence would inevitably change the nature of what was fundamentally a Catholic nation.

    Alternative strategies were discussed and rejected.

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    The archbishop of Valencia, Juan de Ribera, argued that the king should enslave all the Moriscos and put them to work in the royal galleys and mines, or that even if the adults were expelled, the children should be seized, enslaved, and Christianized for the good of their souls; Pope John XXIII canonized San Juan de Ribera in , undoubtedly for other reasons.

    Other leaders argued that the Moriscos were not a threat. The Alpujarras war was long past. The Moriscos, dispersed throughout Spain, had no arms. The borders were more than adequately protected: soldiers guarded the passes in the Pyrenees; there were watchtowers all along the Mediterranean coast. The apparatus for vetting passengers arriving at the ports was functioning well. Some Spaniards opposed the expulsion for economic reasons, since l arge landowners and manufacturers in many parts of Spain depended on Morisco labor.

    Others thought the policy to be fundamentally un-Christian. The royal councilor Fray Luis de Aliaga lobbied for giving the Moriscos time to assimilate and become fully Christian, saying that more effort should be put into educating them. But overall, the prevailing conviction was that the majority of Moriscos were dangerous heretics and traitors. The expulsion proclamation covering Valencia was issued on April 9, It justified the expulsion, just as in the in the decree that expelled the Jews, with sweeping generalizations based on traditional stereotypes that to a large extent ran counter available data, should they have deigned to look at any.

    My advisors insist that this has offended the Deity. The Moriscos are heretics, apostates, and violators of royal policy. I have been informed by my intelligence services that their intent is to disturb the peace of this realm. Although this justifies my dealing harshly with them, I have been lenient and have only ordered their expulsion. The royal order gave the Moriscos three days to abandon their homes and make their way to the ports to be ferried to North Africa.

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    It stipulated that "under the pain of death and confiscation, without trial or sentence If any of them should try to hide or bury their valuables, their neighbors would be permitted to kill them. In any settlement of over a hundred households, six households must remain behind to protect the houses, sugar refineries, rice paddies, and irrigations systems; these must be the oldest residents, and those who have shown the greatest signs of adapting to Christianity. Over the next five years the order was extended to Moriscos living in Aragon and Castile.

    Meanwhile, Cervantes was in the middle of writing the continuation of Don Quijote. Even before that first edict was proclaimed, news of the impending expulsion devastated the Morisco communities. People frantically began to prepare for the worst while they hoped for the best.

    When the exodus actually began, it was even worse than they had feared. Families were split. Bandits preyed upon the columns of refugees. Innkeepers, carters, and ship owners gouged the fleeing Moriscos. The countries to which they fled, particularly the Muslim kingdoms of North Africa, accepted them with reluctance. After all, the Moriscos were Christians, and some of their families had been so for centuries.

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