Basic Clinical Neuroscience (Point (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins))
Young, Daniel L. Tolbert and Paul H. Young , Paperback, Revised Be the first to write a review. About this product. Make an offer:. Stock photo. Pre-owned: lowest price The lowest-priced item that has been used or worn previously. Former Library book. Shows some signs of wear, and may have some markings on the inside.
Shipped to over one million happy customers. See details. See all 14 pre-owned listings. Buy It Now. Add to cart. Young , Paperback, Revised. Be the first to write a review About this product. About this product Product Information Basic Clinical Neuroscience offers medical and other health professions students a clinically oriented description of human neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. This text provides the anatomic and pathophysiologic basis for understanding neurologic abnormalities through concise descriptions of functional systems with an emphasis on medically important structures and clinically important pathways.
It emphasizes the localization of specific anatomic structures and pathways with neurological deficits, using anatomy enhancing 3-D illustrations. Basic Clinical Neuroscience also includes boxed clinical information throughout the text, a key term glossary section, and review questions at the end of each chapter, making this book comprehensive enough to be an excellent Board Exam preparation resource in addition to a great professional training textbook.
The fully searchable text will be available online at thePoint. Additional Product Features Dewey Edition. Show More Show Less. Add to Cart. Note the large anterior and posterior horns and the large posterior funiculi. Figure Transverse section of thoracic spinal cord. Note the slim anterior and posterior horns and lateral horn indenting the lateral funiculus. Note the slim posterior horn, large anterior horn, and the division of the huge posterior funiculus.
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Chapter Review Questions What are the contents of the spinal epidural space? What are the contents of the dural sac? At what three intervertebral articulations are dislocations most likely to occur and what spinal cord segments are related to each? What are the distinguishing characteristics of transverse spinal cord sections at sacral, lumbar, thoracic, and cervical levels? The C8 nerve emerges between which of the following vertebrae? CV6 and CV7 b. CV7 and CV8 c. CV8 and TV1 d. CV7 and TV1 e. TV1 and TV2 Each of the following concerning the cauda equina is true except one: a.
The cauda equina is located within the dural sac. The cauda equina contains dorsal roots of lumbosacral nerves. The cauda equina contains ventral roots of lumbosacral nerves. The cauda equina is located in subarachnoid space. All are true.
It also contains the long tracts that transmit somatosensory impulses from all parts of the body to the forebrain, as well as motor impulses for voluntary movements that originate in the forebrain. Damage to the brainstem is manifested by somatosensory or motor dysfunctions or both, accompanied by abnormalities in cranial nerve functions. The level of damage in a brainstem lesion can usually be determined by cranial nerve malfunction.
Because of the vital nature of many functional centers located in the brainstem, especially at more caudal levels, brainstem lesions are frequently fatal.
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T he brainstem is the stalk-like part of the brain that is located in the posterior cranial fossa. It consists of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain Fig. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the spinal cord at the foramen magnum, and the midbrain is continuous with the forebrain at the tentorial notch, the opening at the free margins of the tentorium cerebelli. The brainstem is covered posteriorly by the cerebellum to which it is connected by huge masses of nerve fibers that form the three pairs of cerebellar peduncles.
Its anterior surface is closely related to the clivus, the downward sloping basal surface of the posterior cranial fossa between the dorsum sellae and foramen magnum Fig. In this circumstance, the brainstem is thrust downward as the overlying mass of the cerebellum herniates through the foramen magnum against the medulla oblongata.
Pressure on cardiovascular and respiratory centers in the medulla quickly results in death. Figure Magnetic resonance image of median view of right half of brain. The posterior surface of its rostral part is anatomically related to the cerebellum to which it is connected by the inferior cerebellar peduncles. The caudal half of the medulla contains a prolongation of the central canal of the spinal cord and is referred to as the closed part of the medulla. The posterior surface of the rostral half of the medulla forms the caudal or medullary part of the floor of the fourth ventricle, the cerebrospinal fluid-filled cavity between the cerebellum and the pons and open medulla Fig.
The rostral half of the medulla is referred to as the open part. The medulla contains nuclei related to the vestibulocochlear VIII , glossopharyngeal IX , vagus X , cranial part of the accessory XI , and hypoglossal XII cranial nerves and also contains centers that are associated with equilibrium, audition, deglutition, coughing, vomiting, salivation, tongue movements, respiration, and circulation.
PONS The pons extends from the medulla to the midbrain. Posteriorly, it forms the floor of the rostral part of the fourth ventricle, and it is covered by the cerebellum to which it is attached by the middle cerebellar peduncles or brachii pontis. The pons contains nuclei related to the trigeminal V , abducens VI , and facial VII cranial nerves and contains centers associated with mastication, eye movements, facial expression, blinking, salivation, equilibrium, and audition.
It is the shortest part of the brainstem and contains the nuclei of the oculomotor III and trochlear IV cranial nerves as well as centers associated with auditory, visual, and pupillary reflexes. It contains the cerebral aqueduct Figs.
Basic clinical neuroscience
An imaginary line passing from side to side through the cerebral aqueduct divides the midbrain into a posterior part or roof, the tectum, and an anterior part, the cerebral peduncle. Because only the most conspicuous anatomic landmarks are necessary to distinguish the subdivisions and their functional levels, these alone are described here. Other structures of clinical importance are described with the functional paths. Lateral to the rostral part of each pyramid is a prominent elevation, the olive.
The shallow groove between the olive and pyramid is the preolivary sulcus where the hypoglossal XII nerve rootlets emerge. The sulcus posterior to the olive is the postolivary sulcus, and this sulcus is where the rootlets of the glossopharyngeal IX and vagus X nerves attach from superior to inferior. The cranial rootlets of the accessory XI nerve emerge in line with those of the vagus but inferior to the postolivary sulcus. Because these rootlets eventually join and are distributed with the vagus nerve, the so-called cranial part of the accessory nerve is considered by many to be a misnomer.
Pons The anterior portion of the pons is the basilar part.
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Its surface consists of transverse bands formed by bundles of fibers that become continuous laterally with the middle cerebellar peduncles. The shallow basilar sulcus near the midline is normally occupied by the basilar artery. The abducens VI nerve emerges at the pontomedullary junction, near the lateral border of the pyramid. On the anterolateral surface of the pons about midway between the medulla and midbrain is the attachment of the trigeminal V nerve. This nerve consists of a larger inferolateral sensory root portio major and a small superomedial motor root portio minor.
Midbrain The anterior surface of the midbrain is formed by the cerebral peduncles. The oculomotor III nerves emerge from the walls of the interpeduncular fossa. Lateral to each gracile tubercle and extending slightly more rostral is the cuneate tubercle. The posterior surface of the open half of the medulla and the posterior surface of the pons form the floor of the fourth ventricle.
Fourth Ventricle The caudal tip of the fourth ventricle lies between the gracile tubercles and is called the obex. The floor of the fourth ventricle can be divided into medullary and pontine parts by drawing an imaginary horizontal line between the lateral recesses, which are found at the widest point of the fourth ventricle. In most brains, the rostral part of the medullary floor contains a variable number of white strands called the striae medullares, which extend laterally from the median sulcus toward the lateral recess.
The median sulcus divides the floor of the fourth ventricle into symmetric halves. Each half is further subdivided into medial and lateral parts by the superior and inferior foveae, small depressions at pontine and medullary levels, respectively. These foveae are remnants of the sulcus limitans and indicate the boundary between motor structures, which are medial, and sensory structures, which are lateral. Hence, extending laterally from the two foveae to the lateral recess is the vestibular area, and at the lateral recess is a small eminence, the acoustic tubercle.
Both the vestibular area and the acoustic tubercle are sensory structures.
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Between the inferior fovea and the median sulcus are two small triangular areas, the hypoglossal trigone positioned medially, and the vagal trigone positioned laterally, both of which are motor structures. Between the superior fovea and the median sulcus is the medial eminence. Its caudal part enlarges and is the facial colliculus, which overlies the abducens nucleus. Cerebellar Peduncles The cut surfaces of the cerebellar peduncles are at the lateral aspects of the pons and in the roof of the fourth ventricle.
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